System Administration PC-Pools

PC-Pools

There are three different PC-Rooms available for students:

  • PC-Pool 1: 00.230
  • PC-Pool 2: 00.326
  • Praktikum 1: 00.325

To login you need to use the RRZE-Account (User identification on the FAUcard). Use your RRZE-Login.

Rules of conduct in the PC-Pools:

  • Always leave the computer workstations clean and treat the furniture and equipment carefully.
  • Throw trash in the bin. Do not leave it at your desk.
  • When leaving the PC-Pool always remember to log out.
  • You must not block the doors.
  • If you are the last one leaving make sure that all Windows and doors are shut.
  • Due to updates overnight you are not allowed to shut any computer down.
  • Do not disturb other students with noise (e.g. loud music)
  • Do not make hardware changes (e.g. switch cables)
  • Lectures are considered of higher priority.
  • For personal laptops you may use the WLAN from RRZE, but do not disconnect CIP-Clients or use the sockets.
  • Do not install own software.
  • Passing passwords results in the deactivation of the account.
  • For further Information here.

Office hours and access to PC Pools

Access to PC-Pools is possible during the opening hours of the Department  by using the FAUcard to unlock the electronic locking system.

Unlocking the FAUcard at the Department of Mathematics is done by Mr. Bayer (Room 01.330), by Mrs. Zintchenko (Room 01.342). Therefore a certificate of enrollment is needed.

Service hours:

Mr. Bayer Room 01.330 Mon – Thu 09:00 – 11:00, 13:00 – 15:00
Mrs. Zintchenko Room 01.342 Mon
Wed
Fri
09:00 – 11:00
13:00 – 15:00
09:00 – 11:00

Old Mensacards don’t work.

Printing

As a math student, you may redeem your free print allotment amounting to 300 pages at the beginning of the respective semester by filling in this form (Only available within the universities network) . Leftovers will expire at the end of every term. Free pages are not assignable.

There is also the option to extend your allotment by paying 0.05€ per page with cash. To do so, please visit Frau Zintchenko at room 01.342. Of course the bought pages won’t expire at the end of each semester
Use http://www.math.fau.de/drucker to see how many pages are still left. (Only available within the mathematic universities network)

In the PC-Pool printing is on the following devices possible:

PC-Pool 1 (00.230):

  • cip1-printer1 (Lexmark X463de)
  • cip1-printer3 (Lexmark X463de)
  • cip1-printer4 (HP LaserJet M806)

PC-Pool 2 (00.326):

  • cip2-printer1 (Lexmark X463)

For Duplex/double-sided-printing select the therefore intended option in the respective option-menue (e.g. evince, okular, etc).

  • “evince datei.pdf”Print -> Page Setup ->Two-sided: Long Edge

Attention: The documentviewer acroread is not recommended, because of the huge amount of defects whilst starting programs, saving or printing. Better choices are okular or evince for opening and printing of PDFs. Instruction on how to change the standard PDF-viewer exists here.

Printing transparent sheets is possible on the Lexmark-Drucker (here).

Canceling and viewing printing jobs is possible.

On the menu bar, click on the Ubuntu symbol to open the Dash. Use the search bar to look for „printers“. Click on the printer symbol – a window will open with all the available printers. In the menu bar click on printer „Printer“. A drop menu will appear. Select „View Print Queue“. A window with a list of all the printjobs will open. By selecting your own printjob, you are able to delete it.

Scanning

Scanning is possible at the following printers:

  • cip1-printer1
  • cip1-printer3
  • cip2-printer1

Step-by-Step Instruction:

  1. Insert the page to be scanned at the top.
  2. Press the e-mail Button.
  3. Enter the destination address (the address the page is intended to be sent to).
  4. (optional) Select Options on the bottom right and adjust the settings.
  5. Press e-mail it .
  6. You should receive an E-mail from MAILER-DAEMON. In the appendix of this e-mail you will find the scanned page in the right formatting. (standard: pdf)

Software

If you can’t run

  • Matlab,
  • Maple,
  • Mathematica

corecctly, that’s probably because the software hasn’t been licensed yet. Use the input field in the menu for the license server and enter:

(for Maple)

license1.rrze.uni-erlangen.de

(for Matlab and Mathematica)

license2.rrze.uni-erlangen.de

It is also possible to change the license data file ~/.Mathematica/Licensing/mathpass auf !license3.rrze.uni-erlangen.de .

Now the program should run correctly (see also here). If you still have problems, feel free to call 67335 or visit room 01.330.

 

Overview of useful programs:

brasero program to burn a CD/DVD
chromium-browser webbrowser
eclipse integrated development environment
evince document viewer, e.g. PDF
firefox webbrowser
gedit editor
geogebra interactive, geometric and calculus application
eog Image Viewer
kile integrated development environment for LATEX
libreoffice office suite
maple computer algebra system
mathematica program used in many scientific, engineering, mathematical and computing fields
matlab http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Numerical_analysis numerical computing environment
nautilus file manager for GNOME desktop
octave numerical computing environment
okular document viewer, e.g. PDF
terminal (Ctrl+Alt+t) unix/ linux shell
thunderbird email client, here
vlc media player
wxmaxima open-source graphical user interface
xfig vector graphics editor

 

All programs can be started via the dash (“Windows” key) or the terminal

Quota

In general, the home directory quota is limited to 3 GB (the command ‘du -sh ~‘  will display your current home directory size).  Thus, please refrain from using Dropbox-sync, as you may easily exceed your quota almost immediately without your notice.

If you happen to exceed the home directory quota (which often will result in not being able to login): Login via console (Ctrl+Alt+F1, US keyboard layout), look for unnecessary and big files and delete them. Ideal places to look for are for example Downloads, the complete directory .mozilla/firefox/*.default/Cache/ and .thunderbird/*.default/ .

A complete list of data will be displayed when using the command ls, e.g.  ls Downloads .

Remove single data using the command rm, e.g. rm Downloads/enormously_huge_data.pdf .

To remove whole directories, use the command rm -r, e.g. rm -r .mozilla/firefox/*.default/Cache/ .

When you finished shrinking your home directory size to 3 GB (use  du -sh ~  to check), logout with the command exit and return to the usual interface by pressing Ctrl+Alt+F7.

Glossar

account

An account on a “UNIX”-System. It consists of the pair of username and user ID, also called login and UID.

BSD

Berkeley Software Distribution
Family of mostly free unix derivates like FreeBSD, OpenBSD and NetBSD.

Bash

(Bourne-again shell) is the standard shell in many unix and linux systems. Contrasting to the PowerShell/PowerShell Core is the bash not object-oriented, but purely text-based.

C

is the programming language in which the platform independent part of the Linux kernel and most of the applications has been developed.

CLI

(Command Line Interface). A programme that enables the user to issue commands to the operating system. Under Linux the CLI is realized in the form of the different shell-implementations.

Compiler

A compiler serves as a tool for the creation of programmes. More precisely, it translates source code into object files.

Copy-On-Write

Describes a feature of file systems where blocks are not over-written directly, but instead a copy of the new data is stored in a different block. After finishing a new block, the corresponding pointer is adjusted. Hence, in the case of a system crash during the write-operation no inconsistent file system state is created. Only the data that was written in that moment would be lost, but the previous version of the block is still intact. Apart from that, this concept makes the easy and fast creation of snapshots possible.

CPU
(Central Processing Unit). The primary micro-processor. A processor is an (albeit very small and freely) programmable arithmetic unit, i. e. a machine or electrical circuit that controls other machines or electrical circuits according to the instructions it is being passed.

Dataset

(in the context of ZFS) is a term for ZFS-file systems, volumes and snapshots. Datasets are organised in a hereditary hierarchy and always assigned to a zpool. They serve as structuring unit of the pool and can be tailored to many different applications. The compression, check sum algorithm, logical block size and many more features and properties of any dataset can be changed individually by setting corresponding parameters. All datasets share the storage space of the whole pool, hence they should not be considered as a partition with its own storage space.

Daemon processes

processes running in the background and mostly performing special tasks.

Device (file)

A device interface that is mapped to a device file in the virtual file system. These files usually reside under the directory /dev.

ext2/ext3/ext4

The file systems primarily used under linux. The newer ext3 featuires journaling, in contrast to ext2, however it is backwards-compatible. Using an ext2-driver one can still access an ext3 partition. ext4 is has been developed as successor to ext3.

FIFO

(First-In-First-Out). A FIFO is a queue. Data that has been written into it has to be retrieved in the same order.

Firewall

A computer or application that protectes the local network from attacks from the internet.

FQDN

(Fully Qualified Domain Name). The full domain name of a system, consisting of hostname and domain. The full name of a (web) domain is called the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN). In that case, it is an absolute address.

The FQDN www.example.com. consists of: 3rd-level-label. 2nd-level-label.
Top-Level-Domain(com). and hence is: www.example.com

FTP

(File Transfer Protocol). A protocol for the communication with file servers.

GPL

(GNU General Public License). Licence under which linux and a lot of other free software is distributed.

HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol).

A protocol describing the interaction with web-servers.

HTTPS

HTTPS (HTTP Secure) is an encrypted version of HTTP. Most of the times it uses SSL (en-US) or TLS in order to encrypt the whole communication between a client and a server. This safe connection enables clients to safely exchange sensitive information with the server, like e. g. in online banking or online shopping.

Interpreter

An interpreter executes a script written in a programming language without having to compile it beforehand.

ISO 9660

This standard describes a file system for CD-ROMs and DVDs. Typical characteristics are the limits on the length of filenames. Also there is no information about the file owners and permissions.

Journaling

In journaling file systems, every transaction is logged, so that after a crash the often-times cumbersome repair of the file system can be omitted.

Kernel

The kernel is the core component of the operating system and responsible for important tasks like process and memory management or supporting the hardware.

Kernel-Module

Loadable kernel modules (LKM) are components that can be dynamically integrated into the kernel and often provide driver code. Thanks to such LKMs a re-compilation of the kernel is often not necessary.

Kernelspace

Memory region in the RAM for the kernel and all kernel modules, like hardware drivers.

LKM

(Loadable Kernel Module). See Kernel-Module.

Linux

is an operating system based on the linux (operating system) kernel an free GNU software. Linus was developed in 1991 by the Finn Linus Torvalds on the basis of the operating system UNIX.

Multitasking

Ability to execute multiple processes simultaneously.

Multiuser

A multiuser systems is an operating system that is capable of providing and keeping seperated working environments for multiple users.

NFS

The Network File System (NFS) is a protocol developed by Sun Microsystems which allows accessing files over a network connection.

NNTP

NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is a transfer protocol for new in newsgroups. It is used e. g. in Usenet.

NTP

The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a standard for the synchronization of clocks in computer systems over packet-based communication networks. NTP uses the connection-less transfer protocol UDP or the connection-oriented TCP. Is was developed specifically to make the transmission of reliable time stamps possible over networks with variable packet runtime.

Open Source

Movement for the promotion of free software. Free software is defined by its free use and the availability of the source code.

Proxyserver

A proxy server is a server between many clients and one server. In general its task is to buffer requests so that the server is not being overloaded.

Process

A process in Linux is ideally representing a running programme. Apart from the executable programme code also the environment, consisting but not restricted to shell variables, is included in this concept.

Pseudo File System

A file system that typically resides in memory and has to be access via a pseudo interface. Examples are procfs and swapfs.

Quota

Disk Quota (quite literally) is a limit for the storage on storage devices like hard drives, that a single user or group of users can use. It limits the storage use of a user.

RAM

(Random Access Memory). The main memory.

ROM

(Read Only Memory). A memory that can only be written once. It is e. g. installed on the mainboard for storing the BIOS.

SMB

A protocol for file shares in a network. Primarily used in the Windows ecosystem.

SMTP

(Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). The standard protocol for sending E-mail.

Snapshot

freezes the state of a filesystem at a certain point in time. If data in the file system is changed, both the current version and the version of the snapshot are stored. At a later time either the state of the snapshot can be restored ore single files of the snapshot can be accessed for recovery purposes.

Secure Shell (SSH)

is a protocol and the corresponding client and server programmes for establishing an encrypted network connection. SHH features mutual authentication and an encrypted file transfer. Initially only for UNIX-based systems, there are nowadays also implementations for Windows and others.

Swap

Parts of the main memory relocated onto the hard drive.

Syscall

A system-call, i. e. a call of a particular kernel function by a programme running in user space.

TCP/IP

Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol
The TCP/IP-protocol family consists of many important protocols for network
communication.
The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a network protocol which defines
how data should be exchanged between network components.
Unlike the connection-less UDP (User Datagram Protocol) in TCP a connection
is established between the end-points of a network connection (sockets). Using that connection data can be transmitted in both directions. Most of the times TCP is stacked onto the IP (Internet Protocol). That is why sometimes people (mostly imprecisely) talk about a “TCP/IP”-protocol.

Ubuntu

also Ubuntu Linux, is a Linux distribution derived from Debian. The name comes from the Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, which means something in the direction of “humanity to others.”

Userspace

Part of the RAM which is used for all programmes and data that are not directly associated to the kernel. Hence, these programmes have no access to the memory region of the kernel.

VFS

(Virtual File System). The virtual file system forms the basis of file system management. All other file systems are integrated by so-called mount points and are hence transparent to the user.

WLAN

(Wireless LAN). Connect to the network over radio connections.

X11

The X window system 11 release 7 (X11R7) provides a graphical user interface for Unix systems.

Zombie-Process

A process which has already terminated but still resides in memory. That way, the parent process can still evaluate the return status of the process later even though it has been neglected at the time.

ZFS

ZFS is a transactional file system developed by Sun Microsystems.

zpool

Concept of ZFS. In practical applications several physical storage devices are pooled into logical units, the zpools, which can optionally be configured more fail-safe. In order to generate a pool stretching over multple hard drives and then create partitions on it, only two relatively simple instructions are needed. Partitioning, creating the logical volume and subsequent mounting in an existing file systems is done automatically.

System Administration Glossar
account An account on a “UNIX”-System. It consists of the pair of username and user ID, also called login and UID. BSD Berkeley Software Distribution Family of mostly free unix derivates like FreeBSD, OpenBSD and NetBSD. Bash (Bourne-again shell) is the standard shell in many unix and linux systems. Contrasting to the PowerShell/PowerShell Core is the bash not object-oriented, but purely text-based. C is the programming language in which the platform independent part of the Linux kernel and most of the applications has been developed. CLI (Command Line Interface). A programme that enables the user to issue commands to the operating system. Under Linux the CLI is realized in the form of the different shell-implementations. Compiler A compiler serves as a tool for the creation of programmes. More precisely, it translates source code into object files. Copy-On-Write Describes a feature of file systems where blocks are not over-written directly, but instead a copy of the new data is stored in a different block. After finishing a new block, the corresponding pointer is adjusted. Hence, in the case of a system crash during the write-operation no inconsistent file system state is created. Only the data that was written in that moment would be lost, but the previous version of the block is still intact. Apart from that, this concept makes the easy and fast creation of snapshots possible. CPU (Central Processing Unit). The primary micro-processor. A processor is an (albeit very small and freely) programmable arithmetic unit, i. e. a machine or electrical circuit that controls other machines or electrical circuits according to the instructions it is being passed. Dataset (in the context of ZFS) is a term for ZFS-file systems, volumes and snapshots. Datasets are organised in a hereditary hierarchy and always assigned to a zpool. They serve as structuring unit of the pool and can be tailored to many different applications. The compression, check sum algorithm, logical block size and many more features and properties of any dataset can be changed individually by setting corresponding parameters. All datasets share the storage space of the whole pool, hence they should not be considered as a partition with its own storage space. Daemon processes processes running in the background and mostly performing special tasks. Device (file) A device interface that is mapped to a device file in the virtual file system. These files usually reside under the directory /dev. ext2/ext3/ext4 The file systems primarily used under linux. The newer ext3 featuires journaling, in contrast to ext2, however it is backwards-compatible. Using an ext2-driver one can still access an ext3 partition. ext4 is has been developed as successor to ext3. FIFO (First-In-First-Out). A FIFO is a queue. Data that has been written into it has to be retrieved in the same order. Firewall A computer or application that protectes the local network from attacks from the internet. FQDN (Fully Qualified Domain Name). The full domain name of a system, consisting of hostname and domain. The full name of a (web) domain is called the Fully Qualified Domain Name (FQDN). In that case, it is an absolute address. The FQDN www.example.com. consists of: 3rd-level-label. 2nd-level-label. Top-Level-Domain(com). and hence is: www.example.com FTP (File Transfer Protocol). A protocol for the communication with file servers. GPL (GNU General Public License). Licence under which linux and a lot of other free software is distributed. HTTP (HyperText Transfer Protocol). A protocol describing the interaction with web-servers. HTTPS HTTPS (HTTP Secure) is an encrypted version of HTTP. Most of the times it uses SSL (en-US) or TLS in order to encrypt the whole communication between a client and a server. This safe connection enables clients to safely exchange sensitive information with the server, like e. g. in online banking or online shopping. Interpreter An interpreter executes a script written in a programming language without having to compile it beforehand. ISO 9660 This standard describes a file system for CD-ROMs and DVDs. Typical characteristics are the limits on the length of filenames. Also there is no information about the file owners and permissions. Journaling In journaling file systems, every transaction is logged, so that after a crash the often-times cumbersome repair of the file system can be omitted. Kernel The kernel is the core component of the operating system and responsible for important tasks like process and memory management or supporting the hardware. Kernel-Module Loadable kernel modules (LKM) are components that can be dynamically integrated into the kernel and often provide driver code. Thanks to such LKMs a re-compilation of the kernel is often not necessary. Kernelspace Memory region in the RAM for the kernel and all kernel modules, like hardware drivers. LKM (Loadable Kernel Module). See Kernel-Module. Linux is an operating system based on the linux (operating system) kernel an free GNU software. Linus was developed in 1991 by the Finn Linus Torvalds on the basis of the operating system UNIX. Multitasking Ability to execute multiple processes simultaneously. Multiuser A multiuser systems is an operating system that is capable of providing and keeping seperated working environments for multiple users. NFS The Network File System (NFS) is a protocol developed by Sun Microsystems which allows accessing files over a network connection. NNTP NNTP (Network News Transfer Protocol) is a transfer protocol for new in newsgroups. It is used e. g. in Usenet. NTP The Network Time Protocol (NTP) is a standard for the synchronization of clocks in computer systems over packet-based communication networks. NTP uses the connection-less transfer protocol UDP or the connection-oriented TCP. Is was developed specifically to make the transmission of reliable time stamps possible over networks with variable packet runtime. Open Source Movement for the promotion of free software. Free software is defined by its free use and the availability of the source code. Proxyserver A proxy server is a server between many clients and one server. In general its task is to buffer requests so that the server is not being overloaded. Process A process in Linux is ideally representing a running programme. Apart from the executable programme code also the environment, consisting but not restricted to shell variables, is included in this concept. Pseudo File System A file system that typically resides in memory and has to be access via a pseudo interface. Examples are procfs and swapfs. Quota Disk Quota (quite literally) is a limit for the storage on storage devices like hard drives, that a single user or group of users can use. It limits the storage use of a user. RAM (Random Access Memory). The main memory. ROM (Read Only Memory). A memory that can only be written once. It is e. g. installed on the mainboard for storing the BIOS. SMB A protocol for file shares in a network. Primarily used in the Windows ecosystem. SMTP (Simple Mail Transfer Protocol). The standard protocol for sending E-mail. Snapshot freezes the state of a filesystem at a certain point in time. If data in the file system is changed, both the current version and the version of the snapshot are stored. At a later time either the state of the snapshot can be restored ore single files of the snapshot can be accessed for recovery purposes. Secure Shell (SSH) is a protocol and the corresponding client and server programmes for establishing an encrypted network connection. SHH features mutual authentication and an encrypted file transfer. Initially only for UNIX-based systems, there are nowadays also implementations for Windows and others. Swap Parts of the main memory relocated onto the hard drive. Syscall A system-call, i. e. a call of a particular kernel function by a programme running in user space. TCP/IP Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol The TCP/IP-protocol family consists of many important protocols for network communication. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is a network protocol which defines how data should be exchanged between network components. Unlike the connection-less UDP (User Datagram Protocol) in TCP a connection is established between the end-points of a network connection (sockets). Using that connection data can be transmitted in both directions. Most of the times TCP is stacked onto the IP (Internet Protocol). That is why sometimes people (mostly imprecisely) talk about a “TCP/IP”-protocol. Ubuntu also Ubuntu Linux, is a Linux distribution derived from Debian. The name comes from the Nguni philosophy of ubuntu, which means something in the direction of “humanity to others.” Userspace Part of the RAM which is used for all programmes and data that are not directly associated to the kernel. Hence, these programmes have no access to the memory region of the kernel. VFS (Virtual File System). The virtual file system forms the basis of file system management. All other file systems are integrated by so-called mount points and are hence transparent to the user. WLAN (Wireless LAN). Connect to the network over radio connections. X11 The X window system 11 release 7 (X11R7) provides a graphical user interface for Unix systems. Zombie-Process A process which has already terminated but still resides in memory. That way, the parent process can still evaluate the return status of the process later even though it has been neglected at the time. ZFS ZFS is a transactional file system developed by Sun Microsystems. zpool Concept of ZFS. In practical applications several physical storage devices are pooled into logical units, the zpools, which can optionally be configured more fail-safe. In order to generate a pool stretching over multple hard drives and then create partitions on it, only two relatively simple instructions are needed. Partitioning, creating the logical volume and subsequent mounting in an existing file systems is done automatically.
Friedrich-Alexander-Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg